Research

Different state governments of India have notified through Government Orders (GOs) the amount they will pay out for each RTE child admitted, in reimbursement to private schools. For example, Delhi has fixed the reimbursement amount at Rs 1190, Uttarakhand at Rs 860 and Uttar Pradesh at Rs 450 per month per child. These amounts are meant to represent the states’ per pupil expenditure in their respective government elementary (primary + upper primary) schools. However, there has been some doubt and dismay about the accuracy of these estimates, and also some research estimating per pupil expenditures in the different states of India (Dongre et al, 2014; Pritchett and Aiyar, 2014) for the year 2011-12. However, in UP the regularisation of 176,000 para teachers in 2014 has added significantly to its elementary education budget and thus revised estimates of per pupil expenditures are needed.

This short note seeks to estimate the per pupil expenditure in government elementary schools in Uttar Pradesh using the government’s own expenditure and enrolment data.

Disclaimer: This research paper is by Geeta Gandhi Kingdon, UCL Institute of Education, University College London.

Research Year: 2015 | Category: Education

Street vendors’ rights to carry on their trade in public spaces, has been the subject matter of debate and discussion in India for a very long time. In fact it has taken numerous judgments of the Supreme Court and High Court to recognize their rights and shape up a statutory regime. This scenario raises an important question, as to what is the kind of property rights enjoyed by these street vendors. A study was undertaken to analyse this aspect and answer some key questions pertaining to the gradual changes that occurred in the overall concept of property rights in India.

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Research Year: 2015 | Category: Livelihood

We review whether criminalising cheque bounce cases has been an effective remedy. We also study the penalties imposed in other countries against cheque bounce offenders and analyse their effective implementation in India.

Research Year: 2015 | Category: Others

Against the post-New Industrial Policy (1991) growth witnessed in large-scale industries, a corresponding boom in the small and mid-sized domestic industry has been conspicuously absent. The paper seeks to document the causes for the same. Further, a comparative evaluation of Indian MSMEs with those operating in other BRICS nations will be conducted, in an attempt to understand the overall effect of the business, policy and legal/regulatory environment on the growth of MSMEs.

Research Year: 2015 | Category: Livelihood

The paper reports on existing incentive structures in a sample of government and private schools in Delhi and elicits teachers’ perspectives on factors which motivate them. It is found that performance-related pay and promotions are important monetary incentives for teachers. Recognition, regular evaluation and monitoring and contractual based employment are found to be important non-monetary incentives. Having a large class size, having to teach subjects outside of a teacher’s expertise and performing clerical duties are found to be some significant disincentives for teachers.

Research Year: 2015 | Category: Education

The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act (RTE), 2009 ratified education as a fundamental right and seeks to promote equitable access to education for all children up to the age of 14 years. However, the Act focuses almost entirely on school inputs and not on learning outcomes. The lack of a focus on output has been accompanied by poor learning outcomes, increased pressure on government capacity and the implementation of policies that may not necessarily give the returns in terms of improving outcomes. In this paper, we argue for a case to shift the focus of education investment from inputs to outcomes, outlining the recognition norms defined under the RTE. We review the literature available to examine whether a correlation between input norms and learning outcomes exists and make recommendations for an outcomes-focused policy approach to improving the quality of education.

Research Year: 2015 | Category: Education

The Union education budget has seen an increase in monetary allocation every year and the enrolment rate across the country has also been largely moving upwards. It becomes important to scrutinise the education budget for 2014-15 to understand how the new government has approached the education sector, especially elementary and secondary education. This paper looks at four major schemes undertaken by the Government of India in the education sector,and identifies trends in state education budgets by analysing data for three sample states—Gujarat, Maharashtra and Rajasthan.

Research Year: 2015 | Category: Education

CCS's iJusticeNIPFP Macro/Finance Group, and Vidhi Legal Centre, alongwith lawyers, legislative experts and economists have identified 100 Laws for repeal to help the administration live up to a key election message.

The group recommends for complete repeal 100 laws that are redundant, or materially impede the lives of citizens, entrepreneurs and the government. The Project does not aim to reinvent the wheel. It simply revisits the work and recommendations of several experts before, and provides a clean compendium of low-hanging fruit that can easily be executed with minimal discomfort or encumbrances.

For more details kindly click on this link.

Research Year: 2014 | Category: Governance

This report analyses the current regulatory framework of higher education in India and highlights areas that require important policy reforms in order to encourage greater private participation. This participation would eventually lead to a more competitive environment in the higher education sector and foster growth, which is needed to achieve the target of 10% increase in Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) set by the 12th Five Year Plan (FYP).

India has one of the largest higher education systems in the world, primarily dominated by private players who account for 60% of the total institutes and 64% of total enrolment of students. The higher education sector in India has a three-tier structure comprising the university, college and course. This forms a vital link with the regulatory structure, and with accreditation agencies playing the key role in maintaining quality and standards in this sector.

In addition to some new insights, this report validates the oft-repeated complaints against regulations that govern higher education research in India – that it is opaque, mired in complexity and tough to navigate. A number of recent studies have covered the broad contours of what needs to change, including the 2013 report ‘Higher Education in India: Vision 2030’ by FICCI and E&Y, and the 2006 study by Pawan Agarwal ‘Higher Education in India: the need for change’, conducted under the aegis of ICRIER. This report builds on the existing research and focuses on the following two areas:

  1. The higher education landscape, in terms of the linkages and broad rules governing the three-tier structure of universities, colleges and courses
  2. Specifics of reforms needed in the legislations studied for various kinds of private institutions in this sector. The comparative matrix should serve as a ready-resource on how three states, and the different university/college routes fare on entry, operations and exit barriers for private players.

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Research Year: 2014 | Category: Education

The paper explains the legal aspects of the regulation of school fees in India, focusing on Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. It examines, with the help of secondary data, what the current situations in these states are, post-implementation of the Regulation of Collection of Fee Acts. The paper uses existing literature on price controls to examine the economic impact of price control and further tries to understand how private schools in the two states are coping with the problems that these Acts have brought upon them, with the help of both primary data collected from school owners in Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan, and secondary data in the form of newspaper reports.

Research Year: 2014 | Category: Education